Five hundred volunteers with shovels gathered at a huge sand dune on the outskirts of Lima, Peru, and over the course of a day moved it by several inches. Alÿs developed the idea after first visiting Lima in October 2000. The political context was inescapable: “This was during the last months of the Fujimori dictatorship. Lima was in turmoil with clashes on the streets, obvious social tension and an emerging movement of resistance. This was a desperate situation calling for an epic response: staging a social allegory to fit the circumstances seemed more appropriate than engaging in a sculptural exercise.”31 The principle that drove When Faith Moves Mountains was “maximum effort, minimal result.” The most apparently minimal change was effected, and only by means of the most massive of collective efforts.
The action itself, as documented in photographs and video, is extraordinarily impressive, but in the end the “social allegory” takes over from the work’s undeniable formal presence. The action was completely transitory. The next day, no one could recognize that the huge sand dune had been moved. The true aftermath of the work lies in the ripples of anecdote and image that radiate out from it.
This is an unbelievably poignant piece that goes beyond interaction and addresses concepts such as cooperation, cohabitation and even goes so far as working together and exploring tolerance. I would like to explore a wider concept through my interactive piece, but as of now I have not got my quote so do not know what to expect. It would be amazing to be able to get a huge group of people to perform something, but time and access give restriction. It also makes me realise one can use the landscape around or some form of nature in this project, but again, laws would probably restrict this.
Design for Travel Audio Visual by kin design.
Tactile paper used to advertise tactile paper.
The importance of touch is obvious here. It is a very simple interaction but an engaging one nevertheless. People are used to flat, clean surfaces in magazines etc so to break this tradition encourages interaction and more engagement than usual. Could possibly use this in this project depending on the quote given and if it fits.
DM9 DDB Publicidade, Brazil for Triatop.
"Scratch your head over the opposite page, and see whether you need to read this ad." Campaign for antidandruff shampoo.
Simple, effective bold and quite brash, I think this a fantastic demonstration of how something very basic can be excellent. Has stressed the importance of simplicity to me for effective interaction and advertising. Will aim to adopt this approach during this week.
Innocent Smoothie, "The Big Knit": http://www.thebigknit.co.uk
The colder months can be tough for a lot of people.
As many as 25,000 older people's lives are at risk because of the cold. And we wanted to help.
Back in 2003 we had an idea. We asked some older people, and some younger people, to knit little woolly hats. We put those hats on our smoothies, and for each one sold we made a donation of 25p to Age UK.
The idea snowballed and so far the people of the UK have knitted an astonishing 5 million hats. Together we've raised over £1.7m, and raised awareness of the great work done by charities like Age UK.
Again, people are encouraged to interact/buy by being given something. These are beautifully designed and are novel because each one is different. People can build up a collection and it will continue growing as each hat is different. The design of something given away is crucial to its success.
Advertising using hen's eggs - of which each person in Japan consumes around 300 every year, and around 53 million are sold each day. Messages are carried on the label on the top of the pack, and on tiny stickers on each egg. The first round of ads was for chicken ramen (NIsshin Foods) as a suggestion for a dish to complement eggs.
Campaign to advertise high quality flavour enhancers Ajinomoto. It is modelled on the amino acids found in foods such as sundried kelp and squid. Accordingly, the company came up with the idea of advertising that involved hanging up kelp and cuttlefish identical to the real thing, just as it would be for drying. They suspended these from the ceilings of train carriages.
Campaign run in September 2005 to coincide with the realise of a new range for autumn/winter. Targeting women - mostly in their twenties, who worked. A proposal was presented for "fitting" ads using visuals of the new range affixed the mirrors, allowing the clothes to be "tried on". The mirrors were set up along the concourse linking Shiodome and Shimbashi stations, the idea being to place them near office buildings frequented by the target market. During the campaign, people stopped by the ads ad had fun "trying on" the clothes.
A cleaning gondola made into a promotional tool. An internal campaign conducted from July to September of 2006 that urged employees to be assiduous about information management and to awaken their consciousness of ecology. After searching for a new communications tool with a strong impact, the novel idea of making the cleaning gondola into a promotional tool was adopted. Precisely because the cleaning gondola was an unusual medium, the design is conscious of the expression it forms. The power of the message was increased using impressive copy and illustrations.
All four of these campaigns - the eggs, the train carriages, the gondola, the mirror - use everyday objects often overlooked but always constantly seen. An interesting approach that contacts a huge number of people. Made me realise can use unusual materials not just card/paper/plastic etc. Might experiment with this is wishing to spread a message or an anecdote to think about.
"Welcome to the world of ‘Sylvie Cranshaw’, a quintessential northern English housewife with a passion for cooking up sauce in the kitchen, fresh meat and spicy innuendo.
Crumble is the dark and funny story of a woman trying to escape her monotonous existence. She mistakes fantasy for reality and loses herself somewhere in the middle. Hidden between the lines of her scrawled recipe notes and the pages of her romantic fiction collection lies a dangerous truth."
This play is performed in people's homes around the world which they volunteer. It allows for a very small, interactive audience and also invades the viewer's most private space, their home, while perhaps exploring wider more general themes through theatre.
I think theatre is a very innovative and malleable medium, and so has the ability to incorporate the audience into its narrative. I love this idea that an interactive performance can take place in a very small location, and affect a small amount of people - but is still counted as interactive theatre. It has made me think about the size of something - although, ideally, if I had a lot of time on this project I could possibly create an interactive performance- and perhaps, because of the time limit, could create something whose effect was on a very small group of people, but still as profound as if it reached the wider public.
The Mystery of Edwin Drood (or Drood) is a musical based on the unfinished Charles Dickens novel The Mystery of Edwin Drood. It is written by Rupert Holmes, and was the first Broadway musical with multiple endings (determined by audience vote).
News board at the Wellcome Collection which encourages visitors to engage with current affairs in science. Very interesting to read different opinions and actually gives you a better view on the subject than simply reading the article. This is good way of interacting, but I feel people are often nervous to voice their opinion, despite it being anonymous. Furthermore, for this project it might be more effective to take a different approach as the public is often very busy and will not stop to write, unlike those visiting a museum. Sadly, we don't have a space like that.
TBWA London for NCDL.
Aimed to awaken the urge to play games in both children and adults. They wanted to remind their target group of when they were younger, and produce both nostalgia and gratification at the simplicity of the game.
This campaign lets readers peel off one of the dogs from the margin and put it in the picture, to find out where it's the right dog for them.
Both this and the piece below are engaging because of their playful qualities. There is always seemingly a lot of success when the designers engage with people's nostalgia and youthful side. Nostalgia and memories of childhood are very powerful - perhaps something to play on now or in future.
A campaign to announce the renovation of the men's floor conducted September 2005, targeted mainly at men living in Nagoya aged 20-30. From the idea that "the men's floor has changed", changing posters were suggested. Stickers of various items of clothing were placed every few days on a poster of a model wearing underwear and on the last day the poster was to be displayed, his styling would be completed. The aim was for the act of placing stickers to become a form of advertising.
Leo Burnett Ltd, Uk for Sara Lee.
The back page of magazine wit an ad for Vapona insecticide. Rolling up the magazine gives you both the shape of a spray can and a was to swat flies in a traditional manner.
Functionality is important and helps engage the audience - especially as it allows the participant to walk away with something. People are more likely to do something if they get something out of it, and perhaps this is something to pursue this week. An exchange of some sort - food, an object - could be very successful. This is a very simple interaction as well - a poster rolls up into the shape of the product to become useful. Little action is needed for gratification. Two things to take away - gratification for audience and simplicity.
Leo Burnett, Frankfurt for Affinity Petcare.
This poster was impregnated with a scent that was particularly attractive to dogs, allowing them to interact with it and so draw the dog owner's attention.
Leagas Delaney, San Francisco for Adidas.
From 1948, Allen Funt had the idea of secretly filming unsuspecting victims in stage-managed situations as a source of entertainment. This team adopted this to create both candid and humorous photos which use interaction not as a product of the work but during the process. This creates beautiful photos and has made me realise that interaction does not have to be the final outcome but could be during the creation of a piece.
thinknnewgroup Munich for BMW Group.
The message of this three-dimensional poster becomes visible as viewers walk by. Their changing position makes the image appear to change.
This is an extremely simple by very effective interaction. All passers-by have to do is look and move. It is not asking them to do anything out of the ordinary - which is extremely effective in big cities. In London people are much less likely to stop and interact as they have such little time, so something primarily visual that changes by the viewer moving could be an interesting approach for this project, more effective than most complicated things.
The website connected with the coupon magazine Hotpepper was updated in October 2006. A campaign was run accordingly to promote the new-look HotPepper gourmet site, and get people to actually access the site.
As a medium for the campaign, HotPepper employed its first OOH advertising. In this OOH, to attract as many to the site as possible, a new technique was developed dubbed QR-ART. This used as the design source the QR code that makes it simple to access the mobile spine version of the site, creating a QR code with an artistic twist.
Out-of-home advertising (aka OOH advertising or outdoor advertising) or out-of-home media (aka OOH media or outdoor media) is advertising that reaches the consumers while they are outside their homes.
Out-of-home advertising is focused on marketing to consumers when they are "on the go" in public places, in transit, waiting (such as in a medical office), and/or in specific commercial locations (such as in a retail venue). OOH advertising formats fall into four main categories: billboards, street furniture, transit, and alternative.
Again, this piece makes me consider working digitally on an interactive website of some sort. QR codes are an obvious way of interacting, and are intriguing as do not give away what is behind it, especially as there is no description. Could incorporate this with an interactive game, but the ideas we have got from our quote are not appropriate for this medium currently.
These are plays that rely much on audience interaction, including:
- Audience participation, including calls of "He's behind you!" (or "Look behind you!"), and "Oh, yes it is!" and "Oh, no it isn't!" The audience is always encouraged to hiss the villain and "awwwww" the poor victims, such as the rejected dame, who is usually enamoured with the prince.
- Music may be original but is more likely to combine well-known tunes with re-written lyrics. At least one "audience participation" song is traditional: one half of the audience may be challenged to sing "their" chorus louder than the other half. Children in the audience may even be invited on stage to sing along with members of the cast.
In immersive theatre, the audience are not merely passive bystanders. They are part of the story, however small their role may be, and they are in the middle of the action.
In an immersive theatre production, the audience in some way plays a role, whether that is the role of witness or the role of an actual character. They may be allowed to roam and explore the performance space as the performance happens around them, allowing them to decide what they see and what they skip. They might be herded from room to room so they see the key scenes. They might even be invited to become a more active part of the performance. The lines between performer and audience and between performance and life are blurred. The audience is placed within the environment of the story and therefore play witness front and centre to the events without the distancing factor of a proscenium.
However, this lack of separation can cause anxiety. If an audience member is not expecting to become part of the performance or is uncomfortable with that idea, it can be very off-putting so there must be some form of consent between the performer and the audience. Whether that’s the conscious decision to take a performer’s outstretched hand or knowing that one has the safety net of being able to back away from the performance, there must still exist some form of separation and boundaries between performance and audience for the benefit of everyone involved.
The origins of immersive theatre go all the way back to the beginnings of modern theatre in the 19th century. Call-and-response, when a leader puts out a call and an audience calls back a pre-ordained response, has long been a concept in music, adding a participatory element. In the centuries that followed, things like murder mystery theatres and haunted houses also put their intended audience into an environment and allowed them choice in how they viewed the story. Even traditional proscenium theatre started to adapt some immersive or interactive elements. In 1985, the Tony Award-winning Best Musical, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, required that the audience vote on who killed the titular character, spurring one of seven possible endings.
Well-known UK-based theatre company Punchdrunk are known as pioneers of the form of immersive theatre. While they have been producing immersive and promenade theatre since 2000 in the UK, they and immersive theatre as a genre meteorically shot to worldwide fame after Sleep No More, their 1930’s film noir adaptation of Shakespeare’s Macbeth, was unanimously well-received in New York.
Since the success of Sleep No More, countless immersive productions have popped up on both sides of the Atlantic. In New York, these include Natasha, Pierre, and the Great Comet of 1812, a techno-rock musical adaptation of a chunk of Tolstoy’s War and Peace, and Then She Fell, an adaptation of Lewis Carroll’s Alice in Wonderland set in a mental hospital. London’s immersive theatre scene has recently featured an all-night production of Macbeth in a block of flats; Leviathan, a production of Herman Melville’s Moby Dick in which the audience stands in for the crew of the ship chasing after the famed whale; and The Drowned Man, a combination of Georg Buchner’s Woyzeck and Nathanael West’s The Day of the Locust set in a 1960’s movie studio and produced by Punchdrunk.
This has made me realise that interaction can be extremely wide ranging, from haunted houses to experimental theatre. It makes me consider different, unusual ideas with regards to interaction - for example, the use of sound instead of vision, or taste or touch.
F Nazca Saatchi and Saatchi for T-Fai.
"Play with your food." A banner game that works on the principle of one of the oldest computer games, Pong, with the ball replaced by a slice of salami.
Could consider working digitally. Again, plays on nostalgia - a very powerful emotion - and is interactive in an enjoyable way. Need to consider making it enjoyable for people, perhaps making them think up something about themselves or playing a game of some sort. Alternatively, could create a painful experience that makes people think. However, this is extremely difficult to do in a public space and as it is my first time, I think I would find this extremely difficult to pull off. Perhaps for the future.
Zubrowka from Poland is a vodka flavoured with grass eaten by bison. In October 2006, a promotion using a cage was conducted on the street of Shibuya and Roppongi. A scene was set up where a son was said to have broken out of his cage and escaped the streets. He had to be found and a clue to his whereabouts, which was a map all the places where Zubrowka was available, was left inside the cage. The places cooperating with the promotion left travel of the vision such as stickers of its footprints.
This piece is intelligent and witty, and flatters those who can solve it, essentially telling them they have the job. This sense of gratification is not instant but it is recognisable. IT is also a challenge - a lot of people enjoy puzzles and using brain power, so this is another route that could be taken. Solving something, like the bison interaction above, either an equation or a measure hunt, is exciting and breaks the monotony of an everyday routine.
All of the above images were found without sources. However, they provide excellent examples of engagement. While they are often involuntary, the message plays off the idea of carelessness. The most pertinent is the magazine drawing attention to rape - while the reader would involuntarily pull the pages apart, they are met with a chilling and thought-provoking message. It is all the more stunning because the reader has already done the incriminating action without thinking about it, so attention is brought to the lack of address that subjects like this often receive, and makes the reader consider how it is taboo but also horrifying, and so should be considered in everyday life. I like the idea of playing off involuntary actions - in our soon piece, it will hopefully be involuntary for the listener to try and spot inconsistencies in someone's voice so that they guess if they are lying. This means that the piece forces them to interact because it plays on a natural reaction, just like the magazine advertisement.
Witty and playful, the audience engages with this piece by going about their normal routine at the beach. This is another thing to consider - adding a message to something people would interact with anyway.